People began to settle Egypt about 10,000 B.C. These people learned to grind grains while mostly abandoning their hunter-gatherer lifestyle. This is technically the beginning of the Neolithic ("New Stone Age") period, where humans first learned how to use grains. Coming out of the previous period of glaciation, 15,000 years ago, the climate in the Fertile Crescent, which included the Nile River, became ideal for farming,
There is a small amount of evidence of cattle usage going back to 8,000 BC, but this didn't really get going until about 4,500 BC. During this period there were locally ruled cities along the entire length of the Nile. Eventually, there would be northern and southern kingdoms, which were untied by force in 3,100 BC, and this began the dynastic period of the Pharaohs.
Egypt was conquered by the Persians in 525 BC and conquered again by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. This continued till 30 BC when they were conquered by the Romans. Egypt began shifting to Christianity. During the late Roman period from the 4th to 6th centuries, they would be ruled by the Byzantine Empire, which had split from the Roman Empire. In 640 AD Egypt was conquered by the Muslims. It would be conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517 and conquered by the Napolean Bonaparte (the French) in 1798. Egypt was conquered by the British in 1882 and remained under their control until 1954 when the Egyptian Republic was established.
Egypt is one of the oldest examples of farming and human civilization.